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          ★ Industrial processes based on ionic liquids

          BASF has developed industrial processes utilizing ionic liquids. These processes are called Basil? processes. The abbreviation BASIL stands for “Biphasic Acid Scavenging utilizing Ionic Liquids.” BASF makes use of this technology for the synthesis of alkoxyphenylphosphines, These compounds are important raw materials for the production of BASF’s Lucirin? photoinitiators that are used to cure coatings and printing inks by exposure to UV radiation. HCl gas is formed during the synthesis of alkoxyphenylphosphines, and this gas has to be scavanged to avoid product decompostion. In the past, scavenging was done with with a tertiary amine. This resulted in a thick, non-stirrable slurry, which was difficult to filter off from the product. If 1-methylimidazole is used as an acid scavenger, an ionic liquid is formed: 1-methylimidazolium chloride, which has a melting point of 75 °C. After the reaction two clear liquid phases occur that can easily be separated. The upper phase is the pure product, the lower phase the pure ionic liquid.

          Eastman Chemicals is using a phosphonium ionic liquid in a process for isomerization of epoxybutene to 2,5-dihydrofuran.

          Air Products has developed an ionic-liquid-based technology for delivering hazardous gases for ion implantations in the electronics industry. The hazardous gases are stored in gas-cylinders filled with an ionic liquid. The [Rmim][Cu2Cl3] ionic liquids can absorb toxic gases like phosphine (PH3) and arsine (AsH3) by complex formation. [Rmim][BF4] ionic liquids can be used to absorb boron trifluoride (BF3). By application of vacuum to the gas-storage cylinders the gases can be released in the actual implantation process and no loss of ionic liquid is observed. Due to the superior heat transfer capability of ionic liquids, gases are easier to load and deliver compared to solid zeolite or carbon-based adsorption systems.

          Linde Gas GmbH uses ionic liquids as liquid piston in pumps for the compression of gases (natural gas and hydrogen). A liquid piston has advantages over a solid metal piston. A solid piston has the disadvantage that they wear and become leaky with time. The ionic liquid seals the cylinder space, in which the liquid piston moves, completely and there is no wear. This technology, developed in partnership with proionics, saves a substantial proportion of the energy required to compress gases.

          Several industrial processes take advantage of the low vapor pressure of ionic liquids.

          ★ List of Application case based on ionic liquids

          Research Institute OR Company
          Application Area
          Ionic Liquids Used
          PetroChina
          Chemical Industry
          a strongly Lewis acidic ionic liquid based on aluminium(III) chloride
          Research Institute OR Company
          Application Area
          Ionic Liquids Used
          BASF
          Chemical Industry
          --
          Research Institute OR Company
          Application Area
          Ionic Liquids Used
          BASF
          Chemical Industry
          1-methylimidazolium chloride
          Research Institute OR Company
          Application Area
          Ionic Liquids Used
          Linde, Daimler Chrysler AG, Wien Energie, BMW
          ionic compressor
          --
          Research Institute OR Company
          Application Area
          Ionic Liquids Used
          Dan Tempel of Air Products
          A new Air Products technology
          Lewis basic ionic liquids (such as [Cnmim][BF4], [Cnmim][Cu2Cl3] or [Cnmim][Cu2Br3]).
          Research Institute OR Company
          Application Area
          Ionic Liquids Used
          Degussa
          Paint additives
          --
          Research Institute OR Company
          Application Area
          Ionic Liquids Used
          IoLiTec(Ionic Liquids Technologies)
          antistatic cleaning agents
          TEGO?-R -IL-P9
          Research Institute OR Company
          Application Area
          Ionic Liquids Used
          Scionix;Anopol
          electropolishing
          --
          Research Institute OR Company
          Application Area
          Ionic Liquids Used
          Degussa
          Chemical Industry
          1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate, 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium chloride, 1,2,3-trimethylimidazolium methylsulfate, and TEGO1 IL K5MS
          Research Institute OR Company
          Application Area
          Ionic Liquids Used
          Eli Lilly
          Chemical Industry
          [PyH][Cl]
          Research Institute OR Company
          Application Area
          Ionic Liquids Used
          Eastman Chemical Company
          Chemical Industry
          [P888 18]I
          Research Institute OR Company
          Application Area
          Ionic Liquids Used
          IFP, BP, Chevron Phillips
          Chemical Industry
          [Emim][Cl]/AlCl3(1/2); [HNMe3][Cl]/AlCl3(1/2)

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